TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info
TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 
The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.   
Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.
Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.”  
Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks. 
Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.
* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.
Zoom Info

TWO GUNS, ARIZONA 

The sheer amount of hucksterism, fires, shootings, cultural atrocities, failed businesses, robbery and general western mayhem that have cursed this piece of desert reads like a history of Arizona itself.  

Two Guns started life as Canyon Diablo and was nothing much more than a shortcut to Winslow through a canyon that flooded every year, making it impassible. Then, around 1910, a bridge was built over the canyon and it became part of the National Old Trails Road (AKA the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway) that went from New York City to San Francisco.  In 1926, the southwest portion of the road was designated as U.S. Highway 66 — both the iconic Route 66 and the future Two Guns tourist attraction were born.

Assorted ruins from the history of the property still stand, most notably the zoo of Fort Two Guns built along the canyon by Harry “Indian” Miller, who advertised himself as “Chief Crazy Thunder.” 

Miller also created a tourist attraction in a nearby cave that was the site of an 1878 mass execution of 42 Apaches and their horses. It had been part of a raid on Navajo land and they were burned alive by the Navajo as retribution.  He called it “Mystery Cave” and created his own fake ruins — both inside the cave and above it — offering guided tours as well as a gift shop selling the bones of the dead Apaches and cold soft drinks.

Guide Note: Located thirty miles east of Flagstaff at exit 230 on I-40, look for the abandoned yellow roofed KOA on the south side of the highway to find one of the most worthwhile stops you can make between Flagstaff and Gallup.

* * *

At-Large Guide to the West James Orndorf was born in Minnesota, but knew at a very young age that the future lay out west. He is currently photographing and illustrating outside of Durango, Colorado. You can see what he’s up to at inlandwest.tumblr.com and roughshelter.com.

HAMPTON PARK ZOO - CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA

Ask anyone who was reared in Charleston before the 1970s and they’ll tell you all about the zoo at Hampton Park. Today, the Citadel uses the green space for combat exercises, while civilians walk their dogs or ride their bikes or jog. But for decades, not too long ago, it was a zoo.

The zoo started with swans at the turn of the 20th century, and grew to include an otter pond, two aviaries, deer, honey bears, and even a lion (famed Lowcountry author Pat Conroy has written about its roar). It wasn’t fancy by any means — the animals were closed in with chain link, and there weren’t any other sources of entertainment besides the concession stand. But for its mid-century audience, especially the children, it was perfectly OK.

That enthusiasm cooled when the federal government passed the Animal Welfare Act of 1971, which included a note or two about zoos. Suddenly Hampton Park’s conditions were deplorable, and the proposed renovation and eventual upkeep were deemed too expensive to be worth the trouble. The native animals were sent to the newly opened Charles Towne Landing attraction on the other side of the Ashley River, while the more exotic creatures were shipped to other zoos around the country. 

Today, the park has a proud duck pond, but otherwise has few claims to representing the animal kingdom.

Images: ca. 1945-48, Jack Keilen Slide Collection, The Charleston Archive at Charleston County Public Library 

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Susan Cohen is a State Guide to South Carolina and a staff writer for the Charleston City Paper. As part of her work, she’s visited strip clubs, played quidditch and homebrewed for the award-winning alternative weekly. Follow her on Tumblr at SusanJCohen.com.